Blum, B. (2018, June 7). The lifespan of a lie. Medium.

Resnick, B. (2018, June 14). This damning video debunks the famed experiment. VOX.

Van Bavel, J. (2018, June 12). The bottom line is that conformity isn't natural, blind or inevitable. Live SCIENCE.

LeTextier, T. (2018). History of a Lie. Paris: Editions La Decouverte.


Asch, S. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, 193 (5), 31-35.

Bandura, A., Underwood, B., & Fromson, M. E. (1975). Disinhibition of aggression through diffusion of responsibility and dehumanization of victims. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 253-269. 

Blum, B. (2017). Ranger games. New York: Doubleday.

Lovibond, S. H., Mithiran, X., and Adams,W.G. (1979). The effects of three experimental prison environments on the behaviour of non-convict volunteer subjects. Australian Psychologist, 14, 273-87.

Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York: Harper & Row.

Orlando, N.J. (1973). The mock ward: A study in simulation. In Milton, O., & Whalers, G. (Eds.). Behavior disorders: Perspectives and trends. (3rd Ed., 162-170). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Zimbardo. P. G. (2006). On rethinking the psychology of tyranny: The BBC prison study. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 47-53.

Wells, M. (Jan. 24, 2002). BBC halts 'prison experiment." The Guardian Unlimited, on line.

Koppel, G., & Mirsky, N. (Series producer and executive producer, respectively). (2002, May, 14, 15, 20, 21). The Experiment. London: BBC.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1970). The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. In W. J. Arnold & D. Levine (Eds.), 1969 Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (237-307). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1971). The power and pathology of imprisonment. Congressional Record. (Serial No. 15, October 25, 1971). Hearings before Subcommittee No. 3, of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on Corrections, Part II, Prisons, Prison Reform and Prisoner’s Rights: California. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1972). Pathology of imprisonment. Society, 6, 4, 6, 8.

Haney, C., Banks, W. C., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1973). Study of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison. Naval Research Reviews, 9 (1-17). Washington, DC: Office of Naval Research.

Haney, C., Banks, W. C., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69-97.

Zimbardo, P. G., Haney, C., Banks, W. C., & Jaffe, D. (1973, April 8). The mind is a formidable jailer: A Pirandellian prison. The New York Times Magazine, Section 6, pp. 38, ff.

Zimbardo, P. G., Haney, C., Banks, W. C., & Jaffe, D. (1974). The psychology of imprisonment: Privation, power and pathology. In Z. Rubin (Ed.), Doing unto others: Explorations in social behavior (61-73). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1974). The detention and jailing of juveniles (Hearings before U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, 10, 11, 17, September, 1973). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 141-161.

Haney, C., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1976). Social roles and role-playing: Observations from the Stanford prison study. In E. P. Hollander & R. G. Hunt (Eds.), Current perspectives in social psychology (4th ed., 266-274). New York: Oxford University Press.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Haney, C. (1978). Prison behavior. In B. B. Wolman (Ed.), International encyclopedia of psychiatry, psychology, psychoanalysis and neurology, (Vol. 9, 70-74). New York: Human Sciences Press.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1979). (Testimony of Dr. Philip Zimbardo to U.S. House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary). In Bonsignore, J. J., et al. (Eds.), Before the law: An introduction to the legal process (2nd ed., 396-399). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1989). (Writer and producer), & Musen, K. (Co-writer and co-producer). Quiet Rage: The Stanford Prison Study [Video]. Stanford, CA: Stanford Instructional Television Network. 

Haney, C., & Zimbardo, P.G. (1998). The past and future of U.S. prison policy: Twenty-five years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychologist, 51 (7), 709-727.

Zimbardo, P. G., Maslach, C., & Haney, C. (1999). Reflections on the Stanford Prison Experiment: Genesis, transformations, consequences. In T. Blass (Ed.), Obedience to authority: Current perspectives on the Milgram paradigm (193-237). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Zimbardo, P. G., Plous, S., &, Lestik, M. (1999, Dec.). The Stanford Prison Experiment Website:

Zimbardo, P. G., & Lestik, M. (2007). The Lucifer Effect Web Site. Launched March 2007. Website:

about THE SPE

Scheflin, A.W., & Opton, E. M., Jr. (1978). The mind manipulators: A non-fiction account. New York: Paddington Press.

Sullivan, D., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1979, March 9). Jonestown survivors tell their story. Los Angeles Times, View section, Part 4, pp. 1, 10-12.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1983, Winter). To control a mind. Stanford Magazine, 11, 59-64.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Hartley, C. F. (1985). Cults go to high school: A theoretical and empirical analysis of the initial stage in the recruitment process. Cultic Studies Journal, 2, 91-147.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Andersen, S. A. (1993). Understanding mind control: Exotic and mundane mental manipulations. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults (104-125). New York: Norton Press.

Layton, D. (2003). Seductive poison: A Jonestown survivor’s story of life and death in the peoples Temple. New York: Doubleday.

Hassan, S. (2015). Combatting cult mind control. Newton MA: Freedom of Mind Press.



Ruch, F. L., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1971). Psychology and Life (8th ed.). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.

Gerrig, R., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2015). Psychology and Life (19th ed.). New York: Pearson.

Zimbardo, P. G., Johnson, R., & McCann, V. (2017). Psychology: Core Concepts. (8TH ed.). NY: Pearson.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1975). On transforming experimental research into advocacy for social change. In M. Deutsch & H. Hornstein (Eds.), Applying social psychology: Implications for research, practice, and training (33-66). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1989). (Co-writer, chief academic advisor, host), & WGBH-TV (Producer). Discovering Psychology [26-program video series.] Washington, DC: Annenberg-CPB. [Updated 2002].

Zimbardo, P. G. (1999). Recollections of a social psychologist's career: An interview with Dr. Philip Zimbardo. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 14, 1-22.

Zimbardo, P. G. (2004). Does psychology make a significant difference in our lives? American Psychologist, 59, 339-351.


Zimbardo, P. G., Pilkonis, P., & Norwood, R. (1975, May). The silent prison of shyness. Psychology Today, 69-70, 72.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1977). Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1977). Shyness—The people phobia. Today’s Education, 66, 47-49.

Pines, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1978). The personal and cultural dynamics of shyness: A comparison between Israelis, American Jews and Americans. Journal of Psychology and Judaism, 3, 81-101.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Pilkonis, P. (1978). Shyness. In B. B. Wolman (Ed.), International encyclopedia of psychiatry, psychology, psychoanalysis and neurology, (Vol. 10; 226-229). New York: Human Sciences Press.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Radl, S. L. (1981). The shy child. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Zimbardo, P. G. (Consultant, On-screen Interviewee), & Ene Riisna (Producer), John Stossel (Correspondent). (1983). The pain of shyness. ABC-TV News, 20/20.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1986). The Stanford shyness project. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (17-25). New York: Plenum Press.

Henderson, L., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1998). Shyness. In H. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mental health (Vol. 2, 497-509). Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

Henderson, L., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2001). Shyness as a clinical condition: The Stanford Model. In L. Alden & R. Crozier (Eds.), International handbook of social anxiety (431-447). Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons.


Zimbardo, P. G., Keough, K. A., & Boyd, J. N. (1997). Present time perspective as a predictor of risky driving. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 1007-1023.

Zimbardo, P. G. & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271-1288.

Zimbardo, P. G. &, Boyd, J. N. (2008). The time paradox. New York: Rider. 

Zimbardo, P. G., Sword, R., & Sword, R., (2012) The time cure. San Francisco: Wiley.

Sword, R. M., Sword, R. K., Brunskill, S. R., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2013). Time perspective therapy: A new time-based metaphor therapy for PTSD. Journal of Loss and Trauma: International Perspectives on Stress & Coping, 19 (3), 197-201.

Zimbardo, P. G. (2015). Reflections on the beginning of time perspective. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, & W. van Beek (Eds.). Time perspective theory: Review, research and application: Essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo. Switzerland: Springer.

Zimbardo, P. G. & Sword, R. (2017) Living & loving better: Healing from the past, embracing the present, creating an ideal future with time perspective therapy. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Stolarski, M., Fieulaine, N., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2017). Putting time in a wider perspective: The past, the present, and the future of time perspective theory. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality and individual differences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Blau, K., Franco, Z. E., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009). Fostering the heroic imagination: An ancient ideal and a modern vision. Eye on Psi Chi.13, 18-21.

Franco Z., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2010) The banality of heroism. In: Keltner D, Marsh J, Smith J.A., eds. The compassionate instinct: The science of human goodness (287-300). New York: Norton.

Franco, Z. E., Blau, K., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2011). Heroism: A conceptual analysis and differentiation between heroic action and altruism. Review of General Psychology, 5 (2). 99-113.

Zimbardo, P.G., Breckenridge, J. N., & Moghaddam, F. M. (2013). “Exclusive” and “inclusive” visions of heroism and democracy. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 32(3), 221-233.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Sword, R. (2016, 5.31). Be a Hero. Stand up. Speak out. Change the world. Psychology Today Blog.

Franco, Z. E., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2016). The psychology of heroism: Extraordinary champions of humanity in an unforgiving world. In: A.G. Miller (Ed.) The social psychology of good and evil (494-523). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Franco, Z. E., Blau, K., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2011). Heroism: A conceptual analysis and differentiation between heroic action and altruism. Review of General Psychology, 15(2), 99.

Franco, Z. E., Allison, S. T., Kinsella, E. L., Kohen, A., Langdon, M., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2016). Heroism research: A review of theories, methods, challenges, and trends. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58 (4), 382-396.

Zimbardo, P. G., Seppala, E. M., & Franco, Z. E. (2017). Heroism: Social transformation through compassion in action. In E.M. Seppala et al. (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of compassion science (487-494).

Special Issue: Heroism Psychology and Practice. (2018). Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58 (5).